What would Carmen Miranda have been without bananas?
These were in response to an article in the lay science journal, New Scientist. But biotechnology, specifically the process of splicing new genes into plants called "transgenics," will make monkeys out of the media. Even more importantly, the same techniques will incredibly expand agricultural biodiversity.
The banana is the worlds most widely-consumed fruit. Rich in potassium, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins A, B6 and C, nearly 100 million tons are produced every year by about 120 countries in subtropical and tropical zones. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, bananas are the worlds fourth most important food crop.
The problem is that while there are about 500 banana varieties, virtually the entire export market comprises one strain called the Cavendish. And these are all clones, albeit not of the Star Wars variety. Thats because theyre grown from cuttings, not seeds.
Its genetic variance, whether in plants, insects, or humans, that allows survivors of a disease to confer resistance to offspring. Without such variance resistance is futile.
In the bananas case, this allows the spread of diseases and pests such as the funguses wilt and black sigatoka, root-munching worms, and weevils. The lack of seeds also makes it terribly hard to use traditional cross-breeding techniques to induce resistance.
The answer, which was actually discussed in the New Scientist article but which the media unhappily ignored, is splicing disease-resistant genes into the fruit. But how long must we wait for such futuristic technology?
Actually, its here.
A disease called Papaya Ring Spot Virus began killing off the fruit plants in Hawaii about thirty years ago, hopping from island to island and then spreading like a lava flow. When it hit the Puna region of the Big Island of Hawaii in 1992, papaya production dropped by a third in just four years.
The crack cops of Hawaii Five-O couldnt stop it, but crack researchers at the Agriculture Department, Pharmacia and Upjohn (now part of Pfizer), soon developed a new variety with the viral coat of a mild strain of the virus spliced into it. This new "Rainbow" variety virtually identical to the old with one major difference: it is 100 percent immune to PRSV. And it remains that way.
"Those biotech scientists have made a monkey of me!"
New genes may come from banks of banana germplasm (living tissue from which new plants can be grown) that are maintained all over the world. One in Belgium alone contains over 1,100 different specimens.
Yet one of the beauties of biotechnology is that resistance-conferring genes from any plant can be spliced into the bananas.
Transgenics will also promote biodiversity not just in terms of predator protection but in developing plants that can grow in more extreme climates, with less water, and poor soil. The former trend towards one-size-fits-all crops is already being reversed.
"Four or five years ago, you could count the number of canola hybrids [made with both traditional cross-breeding and transgenics] on one hand," says Barry Coleman, executive director of the North Dakota-based Northern Canola Association. (Canola produces an especially healthy cooking oil.) "Today, there are about 150 to choose from." Argentina alone now has seven strains of gene-spliced canola.
Even Population Bomb author Paul Ehrlich, as pessimistic a man whos ever eaten a banana, told science writer Paul Raeburn that genetic engineering could "play an important role in maintaining the genetic diversity of crops, since it permits the simultaneous introduction of a given useful trait into all varieties," and that "locally adapted varieties could be genetically enhanced while remaining in production."
But were not just talking banana health here. Scientists like Charles Arntzen of the University of Arizona Biodesign Institute in Tempe are splicing genes into bananas so that when eaten they will confer immunity to such horrible diseases as hepatitis B, E. coli, and diarrheal illnesses that kill millions of children in underdeveloped nations every year.
So yes, well still have bananas – more than ever, with more varieties than ever. And once weve protected them, theyll be protecting us.
Read Michael Fumentos additional work on biotechnology.